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Bacteriology is the branch 1of science which deals with the study of bacteria and their association to medicine. Bacteria are unicellular microorganisms which can live independently or dependently as parasites. This particular subdivision of microbiology involves identification, classification and characterization of various species of bacteria. Commonly known bacterial species are streptococcus species, staphylococcus species, and subsidiary agents like tuberculosis and leprosy.


Types of Bacteria:

Bacteria can exist either as unicellular, in pairs, chains or clusters. They are classified in according to their basic shapes:

  • Coccia

  • Bacilli

  • Spirilla

  • Vibrios

  • Spirochaetes

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Virology is the scientific discipline pertained to the study of the biology of viruses and viral diseases. This also includes the distribution, biochemistry, physiology, molecular biology, ecology, evolution and clinical aspects of viruses. They contain either DNA or RNA genome enclosed by a protective protein coat. A complete virus particle is known as Virion. The major function of virion is to deliver genome to the host cell so that host cell can be transcripted.

 

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Parasitology is the study of biology of parasites which includes distribution, biochemistry, physiology, molecular biology, ecology, evolution and clinical aspects of parasites, including the host response to these agents. Parasites are multicellular pathogenic organisms that habitat within or on other organisms (host cell) for their growth and development. Usually parasites include the protozoa (unicellular), helminths and anthropods (Multicellular).

 

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Rare Infectious diseases are caused by microorganisms which use human body as host cell for surviving, reproducing and colonizing. These organisms are also known as pathogens. The commonly known pathogens include viruses, bacteria, or fungus. They are normally harmless but under certain conditions, some organisms can be fatal and can cause death as well.

Commonly known viral infections include Polio, Ebola, Dengue Fever, H1N1 Swine Flu, Zika Virus, HIV, Hepatitis C, Influenza, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-Cov)

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The most common association among cardiology and infectious disease is bacterial infective endocarditis. Infections’ leading to myocarditis is another area which is still under research. Viral myocarditis has been diagnosed as the most common infectious cause of myocarditis. Enterovirus, adenovirus, and parvovirus are among the most commonly detected infections causing myocarditis. The harmful effect on the myocardium starts with the viral infection, replication and progresses to the host immunologic response and consecutive phase of cardiac remodelling.

Viral and immune mediated diseases of the nervous system are most challenging neurological disorders. The most common neuroimmune disorder is multiple sclerosis and the most common viral infection of the nervous system is HIV. Common to both disorders is the escalating loss of neurons, resulting in significant cognitive and motor dysfunction. A major focus is to identify the pathophysiology of neuronal injury associated with these disorders to develop new diagnostic markers, therapeutic targets, and new areas of research applicable to other neurodegenerative diseases.

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STDs also called sexually transmitted infections, or STIs. These infections are spread from person to person during sexual intercourse. The organisms that cause STDs may pass from person to person through blood, semen, or vaginal and other bodily fluids.

The most common STDs include, Chlamydia, Genital Herpes, Genital Warts, Gonorrhea, Hepatitis B (HBV), HIV and AIDS, Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID), Pubic Lice (Crabs), Syphilis, Trichomoniasis.

Contact Diseases are caused by microorganisms that are spread by one individual to another by direct contact or indirect contact with contaminated objects.

Commonly known contact diseases like viz., Conjunctivitis (Pink-eye), Creutzfeldt-Jacob (CJD), Ebola Virus Disease, Erythema Infectiosum (Fifth disease), Impetigo, Pediculosis (Head lice), Polio, Roseola, Rubella (German measles), Scabies, Tetanus, Vesicular stomatitis (Hand, foot, mouth disease)

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Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a various group of communicable diseases that dominate in tropical and subtropical conditions. citizenry living in poverty, without sufficient sanitation and in close contact with infectious vectors and domestic animals and livestock are those worst affected. Seventeen NTDs have been identified by the World Health Organization. The infectious agents responsible include viruses, bacteria, protozoa, helminth parasites. NTDs can cause blindness, deformity and disablement, disfigurement, cancers, and neurological problems as well.

Commonest NTDs include Buruli Ulcer, Chagas disease, Dengue & Chikungunya, Dracunculiasis, Echinococcosis, Yaws, Fascioliasis, African trypanosomiasis, Leishmaniasis, Leprosy, Lymphatic filariasis, Onchocerciasis, Rabies, Schistosomiasis, Soil-transmitted helminthiasis, Cysticercosis, Trachoma, Scabies and other ectoparasites, Snakebite envenoming, Mycetoma and deep mycoses.

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Oral infections are certain most common diseases in human beings. The two most known oral infections are caries and periodontal disease. Dental caries is the most common chronic disease in pediatrics and is the biggest unsatisfied health care need among children from developed countries. Periodontal disease is the most common oral infectious disease of adolescence. Minimum 1/3 of the population is affected by chronic periodontitis, a bacterially induced destruction of the attachment of the tooth to bone.

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The lungs are part of a complex apparatus, which play a vital role in respiration. Smoking, microbial infections, and genetics are responsible for most lung diseases. Lung Diseases affect different parts of the body like Airways, Alveoli, Interstitium, Blood Vessels, Pleura, Chest Wall etc.,

A wide range of bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoa may cause severe pulmonary infectious diseases in patients with primary immunodeficiency and patients on treatment with anti-TNF and anti-CD20 drugs. Regularly caused Chronic Pulmonary Infections are Tuberculosis, Histoplasmosis, Blastomycosis, Bronchiectasis.

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The majority of rare diseases affect children, most among them have an underlying genetic cause. However, generating a molecular diagnosis with prevailing technologies and knowledge is often still a challenge. The difficulty in multidisciplinary approach, combined with the ascending availability of population genetic data variation, has already resulted in an increased discovery rate of causative genes and in improved diagnosis of rare pediatric disease. Considerably, for affected distinctive family members, a good and thorough understanding of the genetic basis of rare disease translates to more perfect prognosis, management, surveillance and genetic advice.

Some of the rare pediatric diseases are, Kawasaki Disease, Congenital Heart Defects, Eisenmenger Syndrome.

Rare Gastrointestinal Disease is a condition that affects the stomach muscles and prevents proper stomach emptying. The cause might be devastation to a nerve that controls   stomach muscles. This disorder shows Symptoms including nausea and fullness of stomach. Gastroparesis is a condition in which self-emptying of stomach will be difficult. It can be caused by harm to the vagus nerve, which controls the digestive system.

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Rare metabolic disorders are induced due to genetic variations such as defective gene metabolism taking place in the body. Extensive metabolism program scientists harness several technologies, including next-generation sequencing and metabolic profiling, to define the genetic and metabolic basis of rare diseases, with a focus on mitochondrial illness. These scientists are identifying new targets and therapeutic strategies for these devastating disorders.

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Some less common diseases can cause renal damage that leads to chronic renal disease and kidney failure. Some of these rare diseases include amyloidosis, Goodpasture syndrome, and Wegener’s granulomatosis, Alport syndrome. These diseases may harm the kidneys and other organs and tissues as well. The National Registry of Rare Kidney Diseases (RaDaR) is a Renal Association initiative designed to gather information from patients with certain rare kidney diseases.

Skin disorders differ significantly in manifestations and severity. They can be abrupt or changeless, and might be painless or painful. Some have circumstantial causes, while others could be hereditary. Some skin conditions are minimal, and others can be hazardous. Out of these, chronic skin conditions are present from birth, while others show up all of a suddenly later in life. The reason for these disorders isn't constantly known. Numerous permanent skin disorders have convincing treatments that empower broadened times of reduction. However, they're serious, and side effects can reappear at any moment. Contact dermatitis is a common amongst the most well-known word related illnesses.

Some common rare skin diseases include Epidermolysis bullosa, Dermatitis herpetiformis, Palmoplantar keratoderma, Hailey–Hailey disease, Ehlers–Danlos syndrome.

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The treatment for an emerging infectious disease possibly originate from an unlikely source. As an initiative, cattle’s are genetically engineered to produce human antibodies. When it comes to rare diseases, though it becomes nearly impossible to rely on human plasma donations. Even for one batch of a therapeutic medication can require hundreds of collections, and the patient pool for emerging diseases is significantly limited.

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Therapeutic development shares many challenges with other rare infectious diseases, such as incomplete understanding of natural history to inform trial design, need for alternatives to the randomized controlled clinical trial, requirement for more sensitive outcome measures to evaluate disease, limited access to resources required to mount a clinical trial, and difficulties of recruiting a small sample to participation. Solutions to these barriers will require multicentre collaboration, partnership with patient organizations, training a new generation of researchers interested in rare infectious diseases, and exploiting existing resources.

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A large program of research in mathematical modelling and economic evaluation of rare infectious disease prevention is going ahead. Modelling has become an essential tool to help inform our understanding of infectious disease epidemiology and control. Rare Infectious disease models can be used to predict the impact of alternative control strategies and can be linked with economic models. All together these factors play a vital role in policy and funding decisions.

Infections of concern include vaccine preventable diseases, especially influenza, rotavirus, varicella zoster virus, measles, mumps, rubella, tuberculosis, pertussis and pneumococcal disease, among others.

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Infectious disease may be an unpreventable reality of life, but there are many strategies available to help us protect ourselves from infection and to treat a disease once it has developed. Below are the few ways to prevent or control rare infectious diseases

  • Vaccines

  • Antibiotics and Antivirals

  • Microbe Awareness

  • Public Health Awareness

  • Food Safety

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